Technical Resources

DOWNLOAD PDFs OF POST-FRAME RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY ARTICLES
Most of the following articles initially appeared in the official publication of the National Frame Building Association, Frame Building News. They date from 2002 to the present. Others articles with pertinent information on post-frame construction from industry experts were published in Rural Builder magazine or are offered with permission from the publisher and writer.  SELECT ARTICLE TITLE TO DOWNLOAD ARTICLE

2016

Rethinking Ways to Encourage Permanent Truss Bracing
By Frank Woeste, P.E., Professor Emeritus, Virginia Tech
The purpose of this article is to suggest the use of the 2015 BCSI Book1 (111 pages) as a tool for providing a practical path for RDPs to complete their bracing design responsibilities. This article was published in the Component Manufacturing Advertiser and is offered here with the permission of the publisher and the writer.

Progressive Roof Collapse Due to CLR Shifting
By David R. Bohnhoff, PhD, PE
Information on preventing buckling with CLR, uses of CLR in post-frame buildings, CLR shifting and prevention, reducing progressive roof collapse and detailed references are offered. (0816-FN-RT)

Don’t get “all shook up!” – Wood Construction Can Handle High Wind and Seismic Forces
By John “Buddy” Showalter, P.W.
This paper looks at the changes made to the 2015 Special Design Provisions for Wind and Seismic standards for wood construction. (RB0716-2015 SDPWS)

Development of Seismic Design Coefficients for Steel-Clad Wood-Framed Shear Walls
By Khoi D. Mai, PhD; Donald A. Bender, PhD, PE; and J. Daniel Dolan, PhD, PE
This paper examines the results of a study funded by the National Frame Building Association  performed to test and analyze SCWF shear walls to develop seismic design coefficients needed by designers of post-frame buildings. (June 2016-0616-FN-RT.pdf)

The Use of Spray Polyurethane in Post Frame Buildings: An Overview
By Joseph M. Zulovich, PhD, PE
This article discusses the basic characteristics of spray polyurethane foam insulation, addresses some of the controversial issues regarding its use and presents some post-frame building applications for SPF. (April 2016-0416-FN-RT3.pdf)

Design of Slabs on Grade
By Terry Feldmann, PE, and Alan Schambach, PE
Sound design of a slab on grade begins with determining the intended use and performance criteria. (Jan. 2016-0116-FN-R&T.pdf)

2015

Incorporating Cross-Laminated Timber into Post-Frame Buildings
By Daniel P. Hindman, PHD, PE
One of the newest developments in wood structural components is cross-laminated timber. This article looks at how it can be used in post frame. (Nov. 2015 – 1115-R&T.pdf)

Post-Frame Buildings and the International Building Code
By Timothy R. Royer, PE
This article provide some guidance to post-frame building designers in meeting the requirements of the IBC and confirming that their post-frame building is code compliant. (Aug. 2015 – 0815-FN-R&T-Royer.pdf)

Built for Efficiency: A Rotatable Guarded Hot Box
By Andrew J. Holstein, EIT, and Da vid R. Bohnhoff, PhD, PE
The best method for determining the overall thermal efficiency of a post-frame building’s envelope is the large-scale testing of representative wall and roof sections side By side under laboratory conditions. This testing is done using an apparatus known as a hot box. (June 2015 – 0615-R&T.pdf)

Post-Frame Building Foundation Options
By John Fullerton
Post-frame buildings can be supported by a variety of foundation types. Ten such foundation options are presented to provide builders and design professionals with information they need to meet the highest demands for quality, durability and sustainability. (April 2015 – 0415-R&T.pdf)

Life-Cycle Costing Methods for Post-Frame Buildings
By Daniel P. Hindman, Ph.D., P.E., LEED Green Associate
Using life-cycle costing as a tool to help demonstrate the economic case for post-frame buildings By evaluating costs over the life of the structure, rather than focusing on initial costs. (Jan. 2015 – 0115-R&T.pdf)

2014

Total post-frame building design
By Aaron Halberg, P.E.
Three key post-frame features that make it different from other types of construction and a summary of key focus areas that are critical to consider in all post-frame construction projects. (Nov. 2014 – 1114-RT.pdf)

Update on Diaphragm Design Value Determination: Using the Modified Metal Construction Association Procedure
By David Aguilera, EIT, Donald A. Bender, PhD, PE, and Gary A. Anderson, PhD
T
hree methods are commonly used to determine steel-clad wood-framed (SCWF) diaphragm strength and stiffness. (Aug. 2014 – 0814-RT)

Modeling Soil Behavior with Simple Springs, Part 2: Determining the Ultimate Lateral Capacity of a Post/Pier Foundation
By David Bohnhoff, PH.D., P.E.
This is the second of a two-part article covering the use of simple springs to model soil behavior. Covered in Part 2 are the use of springs in a plane-frame structural analysis; ANSI/ASAE EP486.2 safety factors for allowable stress design; ANSI/ASAE EP486.2 resistance factors for load and resistance factor design; and new procedures for determining the ultimate lateral capacity of a post/pier foundation. (June 2014 – 0614-R&T.pdf)

Modeling Soil Behavior with Simple Springs, Part 1: Spring Placement and Properties
By David Bohnhoff, PH.D., P.E.
This is the first of a two-part article covering the use of simple springs to model soil behavior. Covered in Part 1 are suggestions for spring placement and procedures for calculating spring stiffness and ultimate spring strength. (April 2014 – 0414-R&T.pdf)

NFBA Attains Certification for 2- and 1-Hour Fire-Rated Walls
By Leo Shirek, P.E.
A summary of the specifications for the four certified NFBA-rated wall assemblies, a brief history of what influenced the construction of each, and the cost efficiencies. (Jan. 2014 – 0114-R&T.pdf)

2013

Turning Empty Air Space into Thermal Resistance
By David W. Yarbrough, PhD, PE
Post-frame structures have many opportunities for creating enclosed reflective air spaces that have demonstrated thermal resistance (R-value). (Nov. 2013 – 1113-RT.pdf)

Building for Energy Efficiency: Thermal Imaging of Post Frame and Other Construction Methods
By John Fullerton
This article is based upon a May 2010 report prepared for the National Frame Building Association By Double G Consulting. The purpose of this study was to illustrate points of heat transfer in different building types using thermographic images. (Aug. 2013 – 0813-FN-R&T Fullerton.pdf)

Fall Arrest System Testing – Lessons for Post-Frame Construction
By Daniel P. Hindman Ph.D., P.E., LEED Green Associate
Technical solutions to the problem of providing adequate fall protection that satisfy regulations but do not impede, lengthen or add costs to the construction process. (June 2013 – 0613 FN-R&T.pdf)

Shallow Post and Pier Foundation Design: Major Revision of Standard Completed
By David Bohnhoff, PH.D., P.E.
In October 2012 the ANSI approved the latest version of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers’ engineering practice (EP) for the design of shallow post foundations. This paper looks at the 14 main clauses and commentary contained in the revised EP. (April 2013 – 0413 FN-R&T Article.pdf)

Helical Screw Piles: Alternative Support for Post-Frame Buildings
By Alan J. Lutenegger Ph.D., P.E.
The use of steel helical screw piles is presented as an economical alternative to traditional foundation systems for post-frame buildings. (Jan. 2013 – 0113-FN-R&T)

2012

Simplified Lateral Design of Post-Frame Buildings
By Don Bender, Ph.D., P.E., and DREW P. Mill, EIT
There is a need to educate design and building regulatory professionals about lateral design of post-frame buildings. The objective of this article is to present a streamlined approach that is easier to learn than the more rigorous methods (that account for diaphragm/frame interaction) and will yield conservative designs. (Nov. 2012 – 1112 FN-R&T-final.pdf)

Effect of Variability on Lumber Design Values
By Don Bender, Ph.D., P.E., and Frank Woeste, Ph.D., P.E.
In this article, focus is given on stress-rated dimension lumber. Because no two pieces of lumber are exactly alike, there is variability in lumber design properties, even after the lumber is sorted into species groupings and grades. Standards and statistical methods are used to derive lumber design values. (Aug. 2012 – 0812-R&T-Lumber Design.pdf)

Better Fall Protection: Testing of Fall Arrest Anchors Connected to Trusses
By Daniel P. Hindman, Ph.D., and Lori M. Koch, M.S., M.F.
Lifeline and harness products have a set of standard values. The article includes discussion of research at Virginia Tech that used a fall arrest system from post-frame construction. (June 2012 – 0612-FB-R&T-Better Fall Prevention.pdf)

A New Post-Frame Fire Wall: Benefits Include Faster Assembly Time and Cost Savings
By Timothy R. Royer, PE, and Amanda Stauffer
With its ability to reduce construction costs and ease of structural independence, UL Design Number V304 is a valuable addition to a post-frame designer’s arsenal. (April 2012 – 0412 R&T)

Post-Frame Success: Post-Frame 3-Hour Fire Wall Surpasses Three-Hour Test
By Leo Shirek, Wick Buildings
In this interview, Leo F. Shirek, co-chair of the Technical and Research Committee of the National Frame Building Association and member of its 3-Hour Post-Frame Fire Wall Subcommittee describes why and how NFBA successfully developed a post-frame fire wall. (April 2012 – 0412 R&T Shirek Q&A.pdf)

Accidental Analog
By Patrick M. McGuire, P.E., S.E.
This article reviews the practice of modeling a post embedded in soil as fixed at grade and then using the formulas in the International Building Code to check the embedment depth. (Jan. 2012 – 0112 FN R&T McGuire)

2011

Engineering Doesn’t Cost — IT Pays! Certified Design Adds Value to Post-Frame Projects
By Ronald Sutton, PE
A post-frame builder, who wisely and judiciously uses his engineering resource, will find it, at the end of the day, to be a win-win scenario. (Nov. 2011 – 1111-FN R&T.pdf)

Building Loads Imposed by Mono and Bi-Fold Doors
By Paul Boor, PE, Lester Building Systems
Bi-fold and the hydraulic mono-fold doors address the need for large, insulated, automated doors in post-frame structures. This article discusses generalized mono and bi-fold doors. The designer must understand the specifics of the door being used and adjust the loading and design procedures appropriately. (Aug. 2011 – 0811 FN-R&T.pdf)

Procedure Modification: Modification of the MCA Procedure for Strength and Stiffness of Diaphragms Used in Post-Frame Construction
By Gary A. Anderson, PhD
The objective of this paper is to present the significant modification needed for post-frame regarding diaphragm strength as the smallest strength for field fasteners, panel (sheet) corner fasteners or panel out of plane buckling. (June 2011 – 0611-FN-R&T.pdf)

Post-Frame Building System Defined: NFBA T & R Committee Supports Development of New Standard
By David R. Bohnhoff PhD, PE
The primary purpose of this article is to document the series of events that led to the creation of ASABE S618 by members of the NFBA Technical and Research (T & R) Committee. It includes an overview of the development process and an outline of document contents, ending with a brief explanation of the primary difference between post-frame, post-and-beam and timber-frame building systems. (April 2011 – 0411-R&T PF-defined.pdf)

Safety Should Remain Top Concern: Technical Requirements for Fall Protection Systems
By Daniel Hindman, PhD
Fall protection systems for construction are regulated By OSHA 29 CFR 1926 (OSHA, 2010). This standard applies to all commercial construction and applies to all residential construction. The use of full-body harnesses is common in the construction industry and the harnesses have become standard jobsite tools. Anchorage and lifeline system requirements are discussed. (Jan. 2011 – 0111 FN-R&T)

 

 2010

Below-grade insulation of post-frame buildings, Part I: Preventing frost heave
By David R. Bohnhoff, Ph.D., P.E. University of Wisconsin – Madison
This article is the first in a two-part series on below-grade insulation of post-frame buildings and is dedicated to building design for frost-heave control. (Jan. 2010 – 0110-FN-RT.pdf)

Below-grade insulation for post-frame buildings, Part II: Preventing heat transfer
By David R. Bohnhoff, Ph.D., P.E. University of Wisconsin – Madison
Causes of frost heave and options for controlling it were presented in Part I of this article, which appeared in the January 2010 issue of Frame Building News. Presented in this final portion of the article are requirements for heat transfer control, as well as design details and associated constructability issues for below-grade insulation of buildings with embedded posts. (April 2010 – 0410-FN-RT.pdf)

Calculating Buckling Capacity of Built-Up Beams and Columns
By Donald A. Bender, PE; Robert E. Kimble, PE; Frank E. Woeste, PE
Described in this paper is a calculation method developed by Kimble and Bender (2010) that proposes a factor (Cs) to adjust the Emin value used in column and beam buckling calculations to account for the reduced variability of E when the laminations are constrained to deflect together. (June 2010 – 0610-FN-June R&T)

The Next Phase of Green Building: The International Green Construction Code and What It Means
By Daniel Hindman Assistant Professor, Virginia Tech
This article describes the next development in green building: the inclusion of green building provisions in mandatory building codes. The IgCC is in development and is expected to be available for adoption in 2012. This code will address all structures currently governed by the IBC, including post-frame buildings. (Aug. 2010 – 0810-FN-R&T-Hindman_2.pdf)

A Wood I-Section for Post-Frame
By David R. Bohnhoff, PE, PhD
I-section design fabricated with adhesive had significantly greater strong axis bending strength than mechlam assembly. This, along with several other advantages, makes the I-section an appealing alternative to several post designs currently in use. (Nov. 2010 – 1110-FN R&T.pdf)

 

2009

Post connection engineering
By David R. Bohnhoff, Ph.D., P.E. University of Wisconsin – Madison
This article examines what is meant by the rigidity of a connection and its relative importance in overall building design. 
(Jan. 2009 – 0109-FN-RT)

Green Building Initiative
By Mark Rossolo, Director, state and local outreach for the Green Building Initiative
This explanation of the Green Globes system by the Green Building Initiative explains how post-frame construction may be affected by various green building initiatives.
(April 2009 – 0409-FN-RT)

Guide Specification for Post-Frame Building Systems
By Harvey Manbeck, NFBA Technical Adviser
Explanation and instruction for using the Guide Specifications have been developed to aid first time users of the Guide Specification input and output procedures. (June 2009 – 0609-FN R&T June.pdf)

Strength and Stiffness of Post-Frame Shear Walls with Wood Plastic Composite Skirtboards
By Loren A. Ross, Donald A. Bender and David M. Carradine
In this study, a commercially-available WPC product and PPT lumber were used as skirtboards in two common framing configurations of post-frame end walls to evaluate possible effects on shear strength and stiffness. (Nov. 2009 – 1109-FN R&T.pdf)

 

2008

Post installation tools
By David R. Bohnhoff, Ph.D., P.E. University of Wisconsin – Madison
Footing/post placement concerns led to the author’s fabrication of three embedded-post foundation installation tools: a posthole installation shield, a posthole-bottom leveler, and a footing transport and placement cart. The article offers an overview of each of these tools. (Jan. 2008 – 0108-FN-RT.pdf)

Withdrawal strength of bright and galvanized annularly threaded nails
By Douglas R. Rammer, General Research Engineer and Alina M. Mendez Research Technician, USDA Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wis.
This report details a research study investigating the with-drawal strength of nails manufactured to the ASTM F1667 post-frame ring shank standard. (April 2008 – 0408-FN-RT.pdf)

12 structural applications for post-frame
By David R. Bohnhoff, Ph.D., P.E. University of Wisconsin – Madison
The manner in which posts are spaced, supported and/or otherwise incorporated into post-frame buildings gives the building system inherent structural advantages (translating into cost savings). (June 2008 – 0608-FN-RT.pdf)

Walls designed to stand up to wind
By Zeno Martin, P.E. and Ed Keith, P.E.
Structural wall coverings in wind design and wood structural panel solutions. (Aug. 2008 – 0808-FN-RT.pdf)

Safety trends affecting the wood construction industry
By Daniel Hindman, Ph.D.
Safety and safety practices that could be applied to post-frame businesses. (Nov. 2008 – 1108-FN-RT.pdf)

2007

Non-structrual plan review of post-frame buildings
By Patrick M. McGuire, P.E., and Frank E. Woeste, Ph.D., P.E.
This article offers information on important elements of post-frame building plans that should be considered by nonstructural plan reviewers. (April 2007 – 0407-FN-RT.pdf)

How much is too much?
By Gary A. Anderson, Ph.D.
Evaluation and removal of excess snow from roofs of post-frame buildings (June 2007 – 0607-FN-RT.pdf)

Buying fans? Compare the right facts
By Dr. Doug Overhults and Dr. Eileen Wheeler
What data to look for when purchasing fans for post-frame projects. (Aug. 2007 – 0807-FN-RT.pdf)

Lateral Buckling
By Daniel P. Hindman, Ph.D.
Recent research on the testing and installation of unbraced I-joists during construction (Nov. 2007 – 1107-FN-RT.pdf)

2006

“Concrete piers: Making post-frame buildings greener”
By David R. Bohnhoff, Ph.D., P.E., University of Wisconsin-Madison
The use of concrete piers decreases the environmental impact of post-frame buildings, thus making a green building system even greener. (Jan. 2006 – 0106-FN-RT.pdf)

Structural design: Whose responsibility is it?
By Tim Royer, P.E., Timber Tech Engineering
Minimum information needed for a post-frame structural plan and a suggested outline for gathering post-frame building design data. (June 2006 – 0606-FN-RT.pdf)

Review of ASCE 7-05 unbalanced snow load provisions and their effect on building design
By Leo Shirek Wick Building Systems
This article only addresses gable pitched buildings and does not address curved roofs. A brief comparative building example with a summary of the changes made in this area will be shown, along with other suggested design considerations. (Aug. 2008 – 0806-FN-RT.pdf)

UW and LBS Full-Scale Building Research Initiative
By David R. Bohnhoff, Ph.D., P.E. University of Wisconsin – Madison
The purpose of this article is to introduce readers to the intricacies of a full-scale building evaluation by over-viewing the development, construction, instrumentation and testing of the 40- by 200-foot building. (Nov. 2006 – 1106-FN-RT.pdf)

2005

Galvanized fasteners and corrosion in wood, Part 1: The Galvanized Coating
By Thomas J. Kinstler
A heightened concern about the safety of traditional preservative treatments has led to the introduction of non-arsenic treatments, which are higher in copper than those previously used. These new products, such as ACQ and copper azole, have led to concern about the corrosivity of preserved wood to traditional fasteners. (Jan. 2005 – 0105-FN-RT.pdf)

Galvanized fasteners and corrosion in wood, Part II: Fastener Corrosion and Treated Wood
By Thomas J. Kinstler
Much of what is known about corrosion in “matrix” materials can aid in predicting likely corrosion effects in wood. (June 2005 – 0605-FN-RT.pdf)

Review of test methods used to determine the corrosion rate of metals in contact with treated wood
By Samuel L. Zelinka, Materials Engineering Technician and Douglas R. Rammer, Research General Engineer Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin
An examination of corrosion testing related to treated wood and the accurately in predicting corrosion resistance and product longevity. (Aug. 2005 – 0805-FN-RT.pdf)

NFBA’s newest post-frame construction tolerances document
By David R. Bohnhoff, Ph.D., P.E. University of Wisconsin – Madison
This article focuses on reasons behind document development (Bohnhoff, 1999), as well as the developmental process, followed by a brief over-view of document contents. (Nov. 2005 – 1105-FN-RT.pdf)

2004

Post-frame construction and the 2003 International Building Code
By Paul Coats, P.E., American Forest & Paper Association
How will the 2003 Code affect post-frame construction? How does it compare to the 2000 edition of the IBC? There are some differences. (Jan. 2004 – 0104-FN-RT.pdf)

Simplified wind load provisions of the 2003 International Building Code
By T. Eric Stafford, P.E.
The IBC provisions greatly simplify the determination of wind loads for low-rise enclosed simple diaphragm buildings. (June 2004 – 0604-FN-RT.pdf)

Snow load design using the 2000 International Building Code
By John R. Henry, P.E.
This is an updated version of an article that originally appeared in the August, 2002 issue of Structural Engineer magazine as “Snow Load Design Using the 2000 International Building Code,” and has been updated by the principal author to reflect changes in the 2003 IBC/ASCE 7-02. (Aug. 2004 – 0804-FN-RT-SnowLoads.pdf)

Update on ASCE-7, unbalanced roof snow load standards
By Leo Shirek Wick Building Systems
The purpose of this article is to report on recent action by the Wisconsin Frame Builders Association for providing an alternate way of calculating snow loads. (Aug. 2004 – 0804-FN-RT.pdf)

Managing moisture and mold
By Catherine Marx Kaake, P.E., Southern Pine Council
Proper selection and storage of lumber to avoid excessive moisture and potential mold. (Nov. 2004 – 1104-FN-RT.pdf)


2003

Post foundation design considerations
By David R. Bohnhoff, Ph.D., P.E. University of Wisconsin – Madison
Constructing post frame for durability requires that steps be taken to prevent wood decay, metal corrosion, and frost heave. (June 2003 – 0603-FN-RT.pdf)

Applying IBC 2000 wind and snow loads to post-frame building posts
By Patrick M. McGuire, P.E., and Brent Leatherman, P.E.
The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how the loads and load combinations specified by the IBC 2000 may be systematically applied to the structural design of typical post-frame building bearing wall posts, including the methodology underlying these ASAE Standards. (Aug. 2003 – 0803-FN-RT.pdf)

Treated wood in transition
By Stan Lebow, and Jerrold Winandy, USDA, Forest Products Laboratory and Donald Bender, Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Washington State University.
A look at CCA and the candidates to replace it. (Nov. 2003 – 1103-FN-RT.pdf)

 

2002

Substituting T-braces for Continuous Lateral Braces on Wood Truss Webs
By Cheryl Anderson, Frank Woeste, PE, and Donald Bender, PE
Web bracing in trusses is essential for several reasons. The T-brace design tables provided in this paper show the allowable load that can be applied to a 2×4 truss web with a 2×4 T-brace. (June 2002 – 0602 FN-R+T.pdf)  

Changes in the 2001 NDS for Wood Construction
By Philip Line, P.E.; Dr. Robert Taylor, P. Eng.; John “Buddy” Showalter, P.E.; Bradford K. Douglas, P.E.
The 2001 NDS contains many changes from the previous edition, which are summarized in this article. (Aug. 2002 – 0802-FN-RT.pdf)

New quality criteria for wood trusses
By Kelly Gutting, Truss Plate Institute Technical Director
The approval and implementation of new standards in 2002 from the Truss Plate Institute. The article reviews The American National Standards Institute Board of Standards Review approval of ANSI/TPI/WTCA 4-2002 “National Standard and Recommended Guidelines on Responsibilities for Construction Using Metal Plate Connected Wood Trusses” as well as a new quality standard. (Nov. 2002 – 1102-FN-RT.pdf)